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FromAndestoAmazon:trekkingthroughtheBolivianjungle

Greenle 2017-12-28 10:58:06教育


Branchescamecrashingdownandleavestumbledaroundme.Overmyhead,ahowlermonkeywasputtingonadisplay,standingupright,chestpuffedout,peltingmewithwhateverwasathand.Eventually,realisingthatthisgrinningbipedwasn’tgoinganywhere,hegaveup,satastridehisloftybranchandwentbacktoeatingfruit.

ThatwasjustoneofmanycaptivatingencountersinMadidinationalpark,avastswathofpristinewildernessintheBolivianAmazon.Togetthere,I’dflownnorthfromLaPaztotheswelteringjungletownofRurrenabaque.Thenitwasasix-hourjourneyinawoodenmotorboat,chugginggentlyalongtheBeniandTuichirivers,throughsky-highgorgesandgalleryforest,spottingkingfishers,heronsandcaimanasIwent.

In1981,Israeli-AustralianbackpackerYossiGhinsberghadaverydifferentexperience.Attheageof22,hewentoffthetrailanddeepintounchartedMadidiinsearchoflosttribesandhiddentreasure.Hisdreamturnedintoanightmarewhenhewasseparatedfromhisthreecompanions–twoofwhomdisappearedwithouttrace.

Forthreeweeks,hesurvivedonhiswits,willpowerand,hebelieves,sheerprovidence.Sleep-deprivedandstarving,hetookontheelements,fireants,venomoussnakesandamaraudingjaguar,beforebeingrescuedagainstalltheoddsbyhisfriendKevinGaleandthehunter-gatherercommunityofSanJosédeUchupiamonas,whoareMadidi’sancestrallandowners.ThemovieJungle,starringDanielRadcliffeasGhinsberg,isbasedonhisbookJungle:aHarrowingTrueStoryofAdventure,DangerandSurvival.

Butthestorydidn’tendthere.Tenyearslater,GhinsbergreturnedtoUchupiamonastofindthecommunitydyingout,theirchildrenallleavingforthecity.Theirdreamwastobuildanecolodge,wheremembersofthecommunitycouldsharetheirculturewithvisitorsfromaroundtheglobe.GhinsberghelpedthemsecurefundsfromtheInter-AmericanDevelopmentBankandlivedwiththecommunityforthreeyears,developingChalalanEcolodge,whichcontinuestosupporttheUchupiamona,aswellasbeingabeaconofcommunity-runtourism.

Iwasimmersedintheincessanthumoftheforest,pickingmywayalongChalalan’strailsandwobblingoverlogbridges

Fromtheriver,itwasa2kmhikealongtheJaguarTrailtothelodge,heraldedbyraucousparrotsandtoucans.ButoncethereIsufferednoGhinsberg-styleprivations:Ifeastedonjust-caughtcatfishandpapayafromthegarden,thensleptlikeababy,cocoonedinmythatchedcabaña,withitsmahoganyfloorandflushtoilet.

At6amthenextdayIwasimmersedintheincessanthumoftheforest,pickingmywayalongoneofChalalan’smanytrailsandwobblingoverlogbridgesinthewakeofmymachete-wieldingguide,Ovidio.

Shaftsofsunlightpiercedthecanopyasweadmiredforestriches–thehairylegsofatarantulapeekingfromitshole,aflamboyantpoisondartfrog,nobiggerthanathumbnail.IthoughtofGhinsbergandhismakeshiftbedcraftedfromatatteredponchoandpalmfrondsasIsqueezedbetweenthegargantuanbuttressrootsofakapoktree,envelopedinthemuskyscentofajaguar.

Madidibrimswithlife,with15majorvegetationtypesandanaltitudinalspanofalmost6,000metres

BridgingthetropicalAndesandtheAmazon,Madidi,anationalparksince1995,brimswithlife,with15majorvegetationtypesandanaltitudinalspanofalmost6,000metres.Indeed,IdentidadMadidi,astudyofthepark’sfloraandfauna,ledbyDrRobWallaceoftheUS’sWildlifeConservationSociety,aimstoshowthatMadidiisthemostbiologicallydiverseprotectedareaintheworld.

Asthefieldphasedrawstoaclose,Wallacetoldmethatit’sexceededallexpectations:“Atthebeginning,wethoughtthatregistering100additionalvertebrateswouldbeasuccess.Now,afterstudying13ofthe15sites,we’recloseto300additionalvertebrates,morethan600additionalbutterfliesandwellover300additionalplantsand,overall,wemustbeverycloseto100candidatenewspeciesforscience.”

“Twoofthemostsurprisingdiscoveriestodateareaplantusedasincenseformorethanacenturythatendedupanewspeciestoscience,clusiapachamamee,andfindingtheMadidititimonkeyoveradecadeago.”

Backatthelodge,lunchwasinterruptedbya100-strongprocessionofmonkeys.Leanandagilebrowncapuchinswerecloselyfollowedbyscamperingsquirrelmonkeys–theyfeelsaferinthecompanyoftheirlargercousins.Inbetween,aloneblackspidermonkeyputonanimpressiveshowofaerialgymnastics.

Intheheatoftheafternoon,Itookatentativedipinthetea-colouredlake,whiletheresidentcaimansnapped(it’ssafetoswimindaylight,Iwastold),plungingthroughthesun-warmedsurfacetocoolerdepths.ThenIfloppedintoahammockandwaslulledtosleepbyachorusofcaws,chirrupsandtrills.

GhinsbergstressesthatJungleisnotonlyastoryofsurvivalbutalsooneofself-discovery.NowhehasbeeninitiatedintotheUchupiamonaasavillagebrother,orwawqiinQuechua.

“MylifelongdreamhasbeenfulfilledandIhavefoundmytreasure–learningfromtheforestanditspeople,andservingthem.Andthere’surgentworktodo.MadidiisunderthreatfromthesamegovernmentthatcreatedtheLawoftheRightsofMotherEarth.”

He’sreferringtoPresidentEvoMorales’sgoaltoturnBoliviaintotheenergypowerhouseofSouthAmerica,includingtwoproposedhydroelectricmegadamsontheBeniriver,togenerateelectricityprimarilyforexport.ThecontroversialprojectwouldsubmergepartsofMadidiandPilónLajasbiospherereserve,affecting17communities,includingUchupiamona,displacing4,000peopleanddestroyingtheirwayoflife.

“Thefloodingwillkillplants,wildlifewillloseitshabitatandcommunitieswilldisappear.Whatcanwedo?”Ovidiosaid,ashepaddledmeacrossthelakeinadugout,thereflectedtreeslikeRorschachinkblotsinthemirror-stillwater.AsweheadedbacktoRurrenabaque,anotoriouslyelusivetapir–withafacelikeananteater,similarinshapetoapigandbutthesizeofadonkey–swamalongsideusforaninstant,beforefleeingintotheforest.Ashaggycapybara,theworld’slargestrodent,wasdrinkingattheriver’sedge,andtwoharpyeaglessurveyedtheirterrainfromaleaflesstree.

IrememberedGhinsberg’swords:“MadidiisnotjustaproblemfortheUchupiamona:it’sacalltotheworldtowakeupandprotectwhatisnotourstodestroy.”

•ThetripwasprovidedbyTribesTravel,whichhasathree-dayfull-boardstayatChalalanEcolodgefrom£995pp,includingreturnflightsfromLaPaz-Rurrenabaque,airporttax,parkfees,boattransfersandallactivities

原文地址:https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2017/oct/20/bolivia-trekking-amazon-jungle-madidi-national-park-ecolodge

 

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